In vivo inhibition of PC-3 human androgen-independent prostate cancer by a targeted cytotoxic bombesin analogue, AN-215.
The effectiveness of chemotherapy targeted to bombesin (BN) receptors was evaluated in nude mice bearing PC-3 human androgen-independent prostate cancers. Cytotoxic BN analogue AN-215, consisting of 2-pyrrolinodoxorubicin (AN-201) linked to BN-like carrier peptide RC-3094, was injected i.v. at 150 nmol/kg on days 1, 11 and 21. After treatment with AN-215, tumor volume was 69% (p < 0.01) smaller than that in controls and tumor doubling time was extended from 8.5 +/- 0.7 days to 20.3 +/- 3.5 days (p < 0.05). Cytotoxic radical AN-201, carrier RC-3094 and their unconjugated mixture administered at the same dosage were ineffective. The mortality rate was 12.5% in the AN-201 group and 16.7% in the group treated with the mixture, but no deaths occurred in mice receiving AN-215. Because the ester bond linking AN-201 to the carrier molecule is hydrolyzed much faster in mouse serum than in human serum, in the second experiment we investigated the tolerance to AN-215 and its effect in nude mice bearing PC-3 tumors after pharmacological inhibition of serum carboxylesterases. Two applications of AN-201 at 200 nmol/kg were lethal, whereas no mortality was observed after 4 injections of AN-215 at the same dose. Administration of 200 nmol/kg AN-215 on days 1, 7, 17 and 26 again produced 69% tumor inhibition. BN receptors on membranes of PC-3 tumors were detected by (125)I-[Tyr(4)]BN binding, and expression of mRNA for BRS-3 and GRP-R subtypes was also found. AN-215 showed a high affinity to PC-3 tumors, displacing the radioligand at an IC(50) of 12.95 +/- 0.35 nM. Because BN receptors are present on primary and metastatic prostate cancer, targeted chemotherapy with AN-215 might benefit patients with advanced prostatic carcinoma who relapsed androgen ablation.
Plonowski, A; Nagy, A; Schally, AV; Sun, B; Groot, K; Halmos, G
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