Immunomodulatory gene therapy prevents antibody formation and lethal hypersensitivity reactions in murine pompe disease.
Infantile Pompe disease progresses to a lethal cardiomyopathy in absence of effective treatment. Enzyme-replacement therapy (ERT) with recombinant human acid alpha-glucosidase (rhGAA) has been effective in most patients with Pompe disease, but efficacy was reduced by high-titer antibody responses. Immunomodulatory gene therapy with a low dose adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector (2 x 10(10) particles) containing a liver-specific regulatory cassette significantly lowered immunoglobin G (IgG), IgG1, and IgE antibodies to GAA in Pompe disease mice, when compared with mock-treated mice (P < 0.05). AAV-LSPhGAApA had the same effect on GAA-antibody production whether it was given prior to, following, or simultaneously with the initial GAA injection. Mice given AAV-LSPhGAApA had significantly less decrease in body temperature (P < 0.001) and lower anaphylactic scores (P < 0.01) following the GAA challenge. Mouse mast cell protease-1 (MMCP-1) followed the pattern associated with hypersensitivity reactions (P < 0.05). Regulatory T cells (Treg) were demonstrated to play a role in the tolerance induced by gene therapy as depletion of Treg led to an increase in GAA-specific IgG (P < 0.001). Treg depleted mice were challenged with GAA and had significantly stronger allergic reactions than mice given gene therapy without subsequent Treg depletion (temperature: P < 0.01; symptoms: P < 0.05). Ubiquitous GAA expression failed to prevent antibody formation. Thus, immunomodulatory gene therapy could provide adjunctive therapy in lysosomal storage disorders treated by enzyme replacement.
Sun, B; Kulis, MD; Young, SP; Hobeika, AC; Li, S; Bird, A; Zhang, H; Li, Y; Clay, TM; Burks, W; Kishnani, PS; Koeberl, DD
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