Population pharmacokinetics of micafungin in neonates and young infants.
Micafungin is an echinocandin with potent activity against Candida spp. Hematogenous Candida meningoencephalitis (HCME) is a frequent complication of disseminated Candida infection in premature infants. A preclinical model of HCME suggests that micafungin may be an effective agent for this syndrome, but relatively high weight-based dosages are required. This prompted the further study of the safety and pharmacokinetics (PK) of micafungin in infants. Here, we describe the population pharmacokinetics of micafungin in 47 infants with a proven or presumptive diagnosis of disseminated candidiasis, who received 0.75, 1.5, 3, 7, 10, and 15 mg/kg of micafungin. The drug was infused daily, and samples were taken in the first dosing interval and at steady state. Serum concentrations were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Data were modeled using an allometric pharmacokinetic model using a three-fourths scaling exponent for clearance and parameters normalized to a 70-kg adult. Drug exposures were estimated using Monte Carlo simulation. Optimal sampling times were determined using D-optimal design theory. The fit of the allometric model to the data was highly acceptable. The pharmacokinetics of micafungin were linear. The weight-normalized estimates of clearance and volume of distribution approximated those previously described for adults. The original population parameter values could be recapitulated in the Monte Carlo simulations. A dosage of 10 mg/kg/day resulted in 82.6% of patients with areas under the concentration-time curve (AUCs) that are associated with near-maximal decline in fungal burden within the central nervous system (CNS).
Hope, WW; Smith, PB; Arrieta, A; Buell, DN; Roy, M; Kaibara, A; Walsh, TJ; Cohen-Wolkowiez, M; Benjamin, DK
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