The influence of uncertainty in illness, stress appraisal, and hope on coping in survivors of breast cancer.
On the basis of Mishel's uncertainty in illness theory, Lazarus and Folkman's stress on appraisal and coping, and Herth's perspective of hope, this cross-sectional, correlational study was designed to examine the influence of uncertainty, stress appraisal, and hope on coping in 71 survivors of breast cancer. Uncertainty was measured by the Mishel Uncertainty in Illness: Community Scale, stress appraisal by the Stress Appraisal Index, hope by the Herth Hope Index, and coping by the Ways of Coping Questionnaires (WCQ).
Wonghongkul, T; Moore, SM; Musil, C; Schneider, S; Deimling, G
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