Preservation of memory CD4(+) T lymphocytes in breast milk of lactating rhesus monkeys during acute simian immunodeficiency virus infection.
Acute human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection is associated with a massive depletion of memory CD4(+) T lymphocytes in the gastrointestinal tract. To define the dynamics of the CD4(+) T lymphocyte subpopulations in breast milk during acute HIV or SIV infection, lymphocyte populations were monitored in blood and milk of 4 Mamu-A*01(+) rhesus monkeys after SIVmac251 inoculation. Strikingly, although the CD4(+) T lymphocytes in blood were depleted during the peak of viremia, the milk CD4(+) T lymphocyte counts remained unchanged, despite active virus replication in the breast milk compartment. Moreover, CD4(+) memory T lymphocytes were preserved in breast milk during acute infection. CD4(+) T lymphocytes in breast milk and other mucosal compartments of uninfected monkeys were similar in their memory phenotype, activation status, and chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 expression. Interestingly, the number and proportion of effector CD8(+) T lymphocytes in milk were increased during acute SIV infection, suggesting effective control of virus-mediated CD4(+) T lymphocyte destruction in the breast milk compartment.
Permar, SR; Kang, HH; Carville, A; Wilks, AB; Mansfield, KG; Rao, SS; Letvin, NL
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