Update on the management of postoperative nausea and vomiting and postdischarge nausea and vomiting in ambulatory surgery.
Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) continues to be one of the most common complaints following surgery, occurring in more than 30% of surgeries, or as high as 70% to 80% in certain high-risk populations without prophylaxis. The 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5-HT(3)) receptor antagonists continue to be the mainstay of antiemetic therapy, but newer approaches, such as neurokinin-1 antagonists, a longer-acting serotonin receptor antagonist, multimodal management, and novel techniques for managing high-risk patients are gaining prominence. The related problem of postdischarge nausea and vomiting (PDNV) has received increasing attention from health care providers. The issues of PONV and PDNV are especially significant in the context of ambulatory surgeries, which comprise more than 60% of the combined 56.4 million ambulatory and inpatient surgery visits in the United States. Because of the relatively brief period that ambulatory patients spend in health care facilities, it is particularly important to prevent and treat PONV and PDNV swiftly and effectively.
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