Induction of antibodies in guinea pigs and rhesus monkeys against the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope: neutralization of nonpathogenic and pathogenic primary isolate simian/human immunodeficiency virus strains.
We have compared the abilities of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope V3 peptides and recombinant gp120 to induce antibodies that neutralize simian/human immunodeficiency viruses (SHIVs). SHIV-89.6 is a nonpathogenic SHIV that expresses the envelope protein of primary HIV-1 isolate 89.6. SHIV-89.6P, clone KB9, is a pathogenic SHIV variant derived from SHIV-89.6. Infection of rhesus monkeys with these SHIVs rarely induces anti-V3 region antibodies. To determine the availability of the gp120 V3 loop for neutralizing antibody binding on SHIV-89.6 and KB9 virions, we have constructed immunogenic C4-V3 peptides from these SHIVs and induced anti-V3 antibodies in guinea pigs and rhesus monkeys. We found that both SHIV-89.6 and KB9 C4-V3 peptides induced antibodies that neutralized SHIV-89.6 but that only SHIV-KB9 C4-V3 peptide induced antibodies that neutralized SHIV-KB9. Immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that SHIV-KB9 C4-V3 peptide-induced antibodies had a greater ability to bind SHIV-KB9 envelope proteins than did antibodies raised against SHIV-89.6 C4-V3 peptide. We have used a series of mutant HIV-1 envelope constructs to map the gp120 determinants that affect neutralization by anti-V3 antibodies. The residue change at position 305 of arginine (in SHIV-89.6) to glutamic acid (in SHIV-KB9) played a central role in determining the ability of peptide-induced anti-V3 antiserum to neutralize primary isolate SHIVs. Moreover, residue changes in the SHIV-89.6 V1/V2 loops also played roles in regulating the availability of the V3 neutralizing epitope on SHIV-89.6 and -KB9. Thus, SHIV-89.6 and -KB9 V3 region peptides are capable of inducing neutralizing antibodies against these primary isolate SHIVs, although the pathogenic SHIV-KB9 is less easily neutralized than its nonpathogenic variant SHIV-89.6. In contrast to natural infection with SHIV-89.6, in which few animals make anti-V3 antibodies, C4-V3 peptides frequently induced anti-V3 antibodies that neutralized primary isolate SHIV strains.
Liao, HX; Etemad-Moghadam, B; Montefiori, DC; Sun, Y; Sodroski, J; Scearce, RM; Doms, RW; Thomasch, JR; Robinson, S; Letvin, NL; Haynes, BF
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