Acute hemodynamic changes after rapid intravenous bolus dosing of dexmedetomidine in pediatric heart transplant patients undergoing routine cardiac catheterization.
BACKGROUND: Dexmedetomidine is a highly selective α(2)-adrenoceptor agonist with sedative, anxiolytic, and analgesic properties that has minimal effects on respiratory drive. Its sedative and hypotensive effects are mediated via central α(2A) and imidazoline type 1 receptors while activation of peripheral α(2B)-adrenoceptors result in an increase in arterial blood pressure and systemic vascular resistance. In this randomized, prospective, clinical study, we attempted to quantify the short-term hemodynamic effects resulting from a rapid i.v. bolus administration of dexmedetomidine in pediatric cardiac transplant patients. METHODS: Twelve patients, aged 10 years or younger, weighing ≤40 kg, presenting for routine surveillance of right and left heart cardiac catheterization after cardiac transplantation were enrolled. After an inhaled or i.v. induction, the tracheas were intubated and anesthesia was maintained with 1 minimum alveolar concentration of isoflurane in room air, fentanyl (1 μg/kg), and rocuronium (1 mg/kg). At the completion of the planned cardiac catheterization, 100% oxygen was administered. After recording a set of baseline values that included heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, central venous pressure, systolic pulmonary artery pressure, diastolic pulmonary artery pressure, pulmonary artery wedge pressure, and thermodilution-based cardiac output, a rapid i.v. dexmedetomidine bolus of either 0.25 or 0.5 μg/kg was administered over 5 seconds. The hemodynamic measurements were repeated at 1 minute and 5 minutes. RESULTS: There were 6 patients in each group. Investigation suggested that systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, systolic pulmonary artery pressure, diastolic pulmonary artery pressure, pulmonary artery wedge pressure, and systemic vascular resistance all increased at 1 minute after rapid i.v. bolus for both doses and decreased significantly to near baseline for both doses by 5 minutes. The transient increase in pressures was more pronounced in the systemic system than in the pulmonary system. In the systemic system, there was a larger percent increase in the diastolic pressures than the systolic pressures. Cardiac output, central venous pressure, and pulmonary vascular resistance did not change significantly. HR decreased at 1 minute for both doses and was, within the 0.5 μg/kg group, the only hemodynamic variable still changed from baseline at the 5-minute time point. CONCLUSION: Rapid i.v. bolus administration of dexmedetomidine in this small sample of children having undergone heart transplants was clinically well tolerated, although it resulted in a transient but significant increase in systemic and pulmonary pressure and a decrease in HR. In the systemic system, there is a larger percent increase in the diastolic pressures than the systolic pressures and, furthermore, these transient increases in pressures were more pronounced in the systemic system than in the pulmonary system.
Jooste, EH; Muhly, WT; Ibinson, JW; Suresh, T; Damian, D; Phadke, A; Callahan, P; Miller, S; Feingold, B; Lichtenstein, SE; Cain, JG; Chrysostomou, C; Davis, PJ
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