Kinetic role of helix caps in protein folding is context-dependent.
Secondary structure punctuation through specific backbone and side chain interactions at the beginning and end of alpha-helices has been proposed to play a key role in hierarchical protein folding mechanisms [Baldwin, R. L., and Rose, G. D. (1999) Trends Biochem. Sci. 24, 26-33; Presta, L. G., and Rose, G. D. (1988) Science 240, 1632-1641]. We have made site-specific substitutions in the N- and C-cap motifs of the 5-helix protein monomeric lambda repressor (lambda(6-85)) and have measured the rate constants for folding and unfolding of each variant. The consequences of C-cap changes are strongly context-dependent. When the C-cap was located at the chain terminus, changes had little energetic and no kinetic effect. However, substitutions in a C-cap at the boundary between helix 4 and the subsequent interhelical loop resulted in large changes to the stability and rate constants of the variant, showing a substantial kinetic role for this interior C-cap and suggesting a general kinetic role for interior helix C-caps. Statistical preferences tabulated separately for internal and terminal C-caps also show only weak residue preferences in terminal C-caps. This kinetic distinction between interior and terminal C-caps can explain the discrepancy between the near-absence of stability and kinetic effects seen for C-caps of isolated peptides versus the very strong C-cap effects seen for proteins in statistical sequence preferences and mutational energetics. Introduction of consensus, in-register N-capping motifs resulted in increased stability, accelerated folding, and slower unfolding. The kinetic measurements indicate that some of the new native-state capping interactions remain unformed in the transition state. The accelerated folding rates could result from helix stabilization without invoking a specific role for N-caps in the folding reaction.
Kapp, GT; Richardson, JS; Oas, TG
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