Different patterns of immune responses but similar control of a simian-human immunodeficiency virus 89.6P mucosal challenge by modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) and DNA/MVA vaccines.
Recently we demonstrated the control of a mucosal challenge with a pathogenic chimera of simian and human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV-89.6P) by priming with a Gag-Pol-Env-expressing DNA and boosting with a Gag-Pol-Env-expressing recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (DNA/MVA) vaccine. Here we evaluate the ability of the MVA component of this vaccine to serve as both a prime and a boost for an AIDS vaccine. The same immunization schedule, MVA dose, and challenge conditions were used as in the prior DNA/MVA vaccine trial. Compared to the DNA/MVA vaccine, the MVA-only vaccine raised less than 1/10 the number of vaccine-specific T cells but 10-fold-higher titers of binding antibody for Env. Postchallenge, the animals vaccinated with MVA alone increased their CD8 cell numbers to levels that were similar to those seen in DNA/MVA-vaccinated animals. However, they underwent a slower emergence and contraction of antiviral CD8 T cells and were slower to generate neutralizing antibodies than the DNA/MVA-vaccinated animals. Despite this, by 5 weeks postchallenge, the MVA-only-vaccinated animals had achieved as good control of the viral infection as the DNA/MVA group, a situation that has held up to the present time in the trial (48 weeks postchallenge). Thus, MVA vaccines, as well as DNA/MVA vaccines, merit further evaluation for their ability to control the current AIDS pandemic.
Amara, RR; Villinger, F; Staprans, SI; Altman, JD; Montefiori, DC; Kozyr, NL; Xu, Y; Wyatt, LS; Earl, PL; Herndon, JG; McClure, HM; Moss, B; Robinson, HL
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