Construction and phenotypic characterization of HIV type 1 functional envelope clones of subtypes G and F.
Subtype G has been estimated to represent the fourth most prevalent clade in the HIV-1 pandemic and subtype F is widely circulating in parts of South America (frequently within BF recombinant forms) and in Romania. However, functional envelope clones of these subtypes are lacking, which are needed for studies on antibody-mediated neutralization, coreceptor usage, and efficiency of viral entry inhibitor drugs. Here we report the construction, neutralization properties, and coreceptor usage of HIV-1 functional envelope clones of subtypes G (n = 15) and F (n = 7). These clones were obtained through RT-PCR amplification of HIV-1 gp160 from plasma RNA, and were used for pseudovirus production. All 15 subtype G-enveloped pseudoviruses were resistant to neutralization by gp120-targeted broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) b12 and 2G12, while a majority were neutralized by gp41-targeted MAbs 2F5 and 4E10. With regard to the subtype F envelopes, all seven pseudoviruses were resistant to 2F5 and b12, six were resistant to G12, and six were neutralized by 4E10. Coreceptor usage testing revealed that 21 of 22 envelopes were CCR5-tropic, including all 15 subtype G envelopes, seven of which were from patients with CD4(+) T cell counts <200/ml. These results confirm the broadly neutralizing activity of 4E10 on envelope clones across all tested group M clades, including subtypes G and F, reveal the resistance of most subtype F-enveloped pseudoviruses to broadly neutralizing MAbs b12, 2G12, and 2F5, and suggest that, similarly to subtype C, CXCR4 tropism is uncommon in subtype G, even at advanced stages of infection.
Revilla, A; Delgado, E; Christian, EC; Dalrymple, J; Vega, Y; Carrera, C; González-Galeano, M; Ocampo, A; de Castro, RO; Lezaún, MJ; Rodríguez, R; Mariño, A; Ordóñez, P; Cilla, G; Cisterna, R; Santamaría, JM; Prieto, S; Rakhmanova, A; Vinogradova, A; Ríos, M; Pérez-Álvarez, L; Nájera, R; Montefiori, DC; Seaman, MS; Thomson, MM
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