Derivation and characterization of a simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmac239 variant with tropism for CXCR4.
Like human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), most simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) strains use CCR5 to establish infection. However, while HIV-1 can acquire the ability to use CXCR4, SIVs that utilize CXCR4 have rarely been reported. To explore possible barriers against SIV coreceptor switching, we derived an R5X4 variant, termed 239-ST1, from the R5 clone SIVmac239 by serially passaging virus in CD4(+) CXCR4(+) CCR5(-) SupT1 cells. A 239-ST1 env clone, designated 239-ST1.2-32, used CXCR4 and CCR5 in cell-cell fusion and reporter virus infection assays and conferred the ability for rapid, cytopathic infection of SupT1 cells to SIVmac239. Viral replication was inhibitable by the CXCR4-specific antagonist AMD3100, and replication was abrogated in a novel CXCR4(-) SupT1 line. Surprisingly, parental SIVmac239 exhibited low-level replication in SupT1 cells that was not observed in CXCR4(-) SupT1 cells. Only two mutations in the 239-ST1.2-32 Env, K47E in the C1 domain and L328W in the V3 loop, were required for CXCR4 use in cell-cell fusion assays, although two other V3 changes, N316K and I324M, improved CXCR4 use in infection assays. An Env cytoplasmic tail truncation, acquired during propagation of 239-ST1 in SupT1 cells, was not required. Compared with SIVmac239, 239-ST1.2-32 was more sensitive to neutralization by five of seven serum and plasma samples from SIVmac239-infected rhesus macaques and was approximately 50-fold more sensitive to soluble CD4. Thus, SIVmac239 can acquire the ability to use CXCR4 with high efficiency, but the changes required for this phenotype may be distinct from those for HIV-1 CXCR4 use. This finding, along with the increased neutralization sensitivity of this CXCR4-using SIV, suggests a mechanism that could select strongly against this phenotype in vivo.
Del Prete, GQ; Haggarty, B; Leslie, GJ; Jordan, APO; Romano, J; Wang, N; Wang, J; Holmes, MC; Montefiori, DC; Hoxie, JA
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