Postnatal pre- and postexposure passive immunization strategies: protection of neonatal macaques against oral simian-human immunodeficiency virus challenge.
Simian-human immunodeficiency viruses (SHIV) allow the evaluation of antiviral strategies that target the envelope glycoproteins of the human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) in macaques. We previously protected neonates from oral challenge with cell-free SHIV-vpu+ by passive immunization with synergistic human neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) (Baba et al., Nat Med 6:200-206, 2000). mAbs were administered prenatally to pregnant dams and postnatally to the neonates. Here, we used solely postnatal or postexposure mAb treatment, thus significantly reducing the amount of mAbs necessary. All neonatal monkeys were also protected with these abbreviated mAb regimens. Our results are directly relevant for humans because we used mAbs that target HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins. Thus, the large-scale use of passive immunization with neutralizing mAbs may be feasible in human neonates. The mAbs, being natural human proteins, can be expected to have low toxicity. Passive immunization has promise to prevent intrapartum as well as milk-borne virus transmission from HIV-1-infected women to their infants.
Hofmann-Lehmann, R; Vlasak, J; Rasmussen, RA; Jiang, S; Li, PL; Baba, TW; Montefiori, DC; Bernacky, BJ; Rizvi, TA; Schmidt, R; Hill, LR; Keeling, ME; Katinger, H; Stiegler, G; Cavacini, LA; Posner, MR; Ruprecht, RM
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