Increased loss of CCR5+ CD45RA- CD4+ T cells in CD8+ lymphocyte-depleted Simian immunodeficiency virus-infected rhesus monkeys.
Previously we have shown that CD8(+) T cells are critical for containment of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) viremia and that rapid and profound depletion of CD4(+) T cells occurs in the intestinal tract of acutely infected macaques. To determine the impact of SIV-specific CD8(+) T-cell responses on the magnitude of the CD4(+) T-cell depletion, we investigated the effect of CD8(+) lymphocyte depletion during primary SIV infection on CD4(+) T-cell subsets and function in peripheral blood, lymph nodes, and intestinal tissues. In peripheral blood, CD8(+) lymphocyte-depletion changed the dynamics of CD4(+) T-cell loss, resulting in a more pronounced loss 2 weeks after infection, followed by a temporal rebound approximately 2 months after infection, when absolute numbers of CD4(+) T cells were restored to baseline levels. These CD4(+) T cells showed a markedly skewed phenotype, however, as there were decreased levels of memory cells in CD8(+) lymphocyte-depleted macaques compared to controls. In intestinal tissues and lymph nodes, we observed a significantly higher loss of CCR5(+) CD45RA(-) CD4(+) T cells in CD8(+) lymphocyte-depleted macaques than in controls, suggesting that these SIV-targeted CD4(+) T cells were eliminated more efficiently in CD8(+) lymphocyte-depleted animals. Also, CD8(+) lymphocyte depletion significantly affected the ability to generate SIV Gag-specific CD4(+) T-cell responses and neutralizing antibodies. These results reemphasize that SIV-specific CD8(+) T-cell responses are absolutely critical to initiate at least partial control of SIV infection.
Veazey, RS; Acierno, PM; McEvers, KJ; Baumeister, SHC; Foster, GJ; Rett, MD; Newberg, MH; Kuroda, MJ; Williams, K; Kim, E-Y; Wolinsky, SM; Rieber, EP; Piatak, M; Lifson, JD; Montefiori, DC; Brown, CR; Hirsch, VM; Schmitz, JE
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