Complete protection of neonatal rhesus macaques against oral exposure to pathogenic simian-human immunodeficiency virus by human anti-HIV monoclonal antibodies.
Because milk-borne transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) diminishes the benefits of perinatal antiviral drug therapy in developing countries, we have developed a new strategy to prevent postnatal and, possibly, intrapartum virus transmission in a primate model. Eight neonatal rhesus macaques were exposed orally to pathogenic simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV); 4 neonates were then given intramuscular postexposure prophylaxis with 3 anti-HIV human neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (nMAbs) with potent cross-clade and cross-group neutralization activity. Untreated infants experienced high viral RNA levels and CD4(+) T-cell losses and died (median survival time, 5.5 weeks). In contrast, all 4 nMAb-treated neonates were protected from infection (P=.028); their plasma, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and lymph nodes remained virus negative for >1 year. These data are important for designing clinical trials in human neonates and have general implications for AIDS vaccine development, as the epitopes recognized by the 3 nMAbs are conserved among diverse primary isolates.
Ferrantelli, F; Rasmussen, RA; Buckley, KA; Li, P-L; Wang, T; Montefiori, DC; Katinger, H; Stiegler, G; Anderson, DC; McClure, HM; Ruprecht, RM
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