Studies on GM-CSF DNA as an adjuvant for neutralizing Ab elicited by a DNA/MVA immunodeficiency virus vaccine.
Here, we use a vaccine consisting of DNA priming followed by MVA boosting in rhesus macaques to investigate the ability of GM-CSF DNA to serve as an adjuvant for the elicitation of neutralizing Ab against an HIV-1 Env. The trial used Gag, Pol, and Env sequences from SHIV-89.6 in the immunogens and a neutralization escape variant of SHIV-89.6, SHIV-89.6P, for challenge. Co-delivery of GM-CSF and vaccine DNAs enhanced the temporal appearance of neutralizing Ab and broadened the specificity of the neutralizing activity to include SHIV-89.6P. Two long-term SHIV-89.6 infections elicited neutralizing activity for SHIV-89.6 but not SHIV-89.6P. Studies on the avidity of the anti-Env antisera revealed that the GM-CSF-adjuvanted vaccine had elicited higher avidity Ab than the non-adjuvanted vaccine or the infection. The GM-CSF-adjuvanted group showed a trend towards better control of the challenge infection and had better control of re-emergent virus (P < 0.01) than the non-adjuvanted group.
Robinson, HL; Montefiori, DC; Villinger, F; Robinson, JE; Sharma, S; Wyatt, LS; Earl, PL; McClure, HM; Moss, B; Amara, RR
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