Integrative noetic therapies as adjuncts to percutaneous intervention during unstable coronary syndromes: Monitoring and Actualization of Noetic Training (MANTRA) feasibility pilot.
BACKGROUND: Patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for unstable coronary syndromes have substantial emotional and spiritual distress that may promote procedural complications. Noetic (nonpharmacologic) therapies may reduce anxiety, pain and distress, enhance the efficacy of pharmacologic agents, or affect short- and long-term procedural outcomes. METHODS: The Monitoring and Actualization of Noetic Training (MANTRA) pilot study examined the feasibility of applying 4 noetic therapies-stress relaxation, imagery, touch therapy, and prayer-to patients in the setting of acute coronary interventions. Eligible patients had acute coronary syndromes and invasive angiography or PCI. Patients were randomized across 5 treatment groups: the 4 noetic and standard therapies. Questionnaires completed before PCI reflected patients' religious beliefs and anxiety. Index hospitalization end points included post-PCI ischemia, death, myocardial infarction, heart failure, and urgent revascularization. Mortality was followed up for 6 months after hospitalization. RESULTS: Of eligible patients, 88% gave informed consent. Of 150 patients enrolled, 120 were assigned to noetic therapy; 118 (98%) completed their therapeutic assignments. All clinical end points were available for 100% of patients. Results were not statistically significant for any outcomes comparisons. There was a 25% to 30% absolute reduction in adverse periprocedural outcomes in patients treated with any noetic therapy compared with standard therapy. The lowest absolute complication rates were observed in patients assigned to off-site prayer. All mortality by 6-month follow-up was in the noetic therapies group. In patients with questionnaire scores indicating a high level of spiritual belief, a high level of personal spiritual activity, a low level of community-based religious involvement, or a high level of anxiety, noetic therapies appeared to show greater reduction in absolute in-hospital complication rates compared with standard therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Acceptance of noetic adjuncts to invasive therapy for acute coronary syndromes was excellent, and logistics were feasible. No outcomes differences were significant; however, index hospitalization data consistently suggested a therapeutic benefit with noetic therapy. Of all noetic therapies, off-site intercessory prayer had the lowest short- and long-term absolute complication rates. Definitive demonstration of treatment effects of this magnitude would be feasible in a patient population about 4 times that of this pilot study. Absolute mortality differences make safety considerations a mandatory feature of future clinical trials in this area.
Krucoff, MW; Crater, SW; Green, CL; Maas, AC; Seskevich, JE; Lane, JD; Loeffler, KA; Morris, K; Bashore, TM; Koenig, HG
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