Unusual cardiomyopathies: ventricular noncompaction and takotsubo cardiomyopathy.
With improved imaging techniques, such as cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography, 2 unusual cardiomyopathies have been added to the differential diagnosis of nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathies. Ventricular noncompaction (VNC) classically affects the left ventricle, although right ventricular involvement can also be seen. Symptoms can be absent or can be consistent with varying degrees of heart failure and arrhythmias. VNC can initially present in all age groups, from neonates to the elderly. In takotsubo cardiomyopathy, the characteristic appearance of the left ventricle involves transient regional dysfunction of the apex and mid-ventricle, with hyperkinesis of the basal segments. Classically, it occurs after an emotionally stressful event, and it predominantly affects postmenopausal women. This article reviews characteristics of these unique cardiomyopathies.
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