Gender, race/ethnicity, and social class in research reports on stigma in HIV-positive women.


Journal Article (Review)

The layering of HIV-related stigma with stigmas associated with gender, race, and class poses a methodological challenge to those seeking to understand and, thereby, to minimize its negative effects. In this meta-study of 32 reports of studies of stigma conducted with HIV-positive women, we found that gender was hardly addressed despite the all-female composition of samples. Neither sexual orientation nor social class received much notice. Race was the dominant category addressed, most notably in reports featuring women in only one race/ethnic group. The relative absence of attention to these categories as cultural performances suggests the recurring assumption that sample inclusiveness automatically implies the inclusion of gender, race, and class, which is itself a cultural performance.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Sandelowski, M; Barroso, J; Voils, CI

Published Date

  • April 2009

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 30 / 4

Start / End Page

  • 273 - 288

PubMed ID

  • 19255883

Pubmed Central ID

  • 19255883

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1096-4665

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1080/07399330802694880


  • eng

Conference Location

  • England