Initial characterization of micafungin pulmonary delivery via two different nebulizers and multivariate data analysis of aerosol mass distribution profiles.
Pharmaceutical aerosols have been targeted to the lungs for the treatment of asthma and pulmonary infectious diseases successfully. Micafungin (Astellas Pharma US, Deerfield, IL, USA) has been shown to be an effective antifungal agent when administrated intravenously. Pulmonary delivery of micafungin has not previously been reported. In the present pilot study, we characterize the performance of two nebulizers and their potential for delivering micafungin to the lungs as well as the use of multivariate data analysis for mass distribution profile comparison. The concentration of micafungin sodium increased by 21% when delivered by the Acorn II nebulizer and by 20% when delivered by the LC Plus nebulizer, respectively, from the first to the second sampling period. The Acorn II nebulizer delivered a fine particle fraction FPF(5.8) (%<5.8 microm) of 92.5 +/- 0.8 and FPF(3.3) (%<3.3 microm) of 82.3 +/- 2.1 during the first sampling period. For the LC Plus nebulizer, FPF(5.8) was 92.3 +/- 0.1 and FPF(3.3) was 67.0 +/- 0.7 during the first sampling period. The mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) increased from 1.67 +/- 0.05 to 1.77 +/- 0.04 mum (Acorn II nebulizer) and from 2.09 +/- 0.01 to 2.20 +/- 0.01 microm (Pari LC Plus nebulizer) from the first to the second sampling periods. These changes in MMAD were statistically significant by paired t test. Multivariate data analysis showed that this could be explained systematically by greater drug deposition on stages with larger cutoff sizes and reduced drug deposition on stages with smaller cutoff sizes rather than multimodal deposition or other anomalies in size distribution.
Shi, S; Ashley, ESD; Alexander, BD; Hickey, AJ
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