Novel modes of antifungal drug administration.
Administration of antifungals by routes other than that for which the agent was designed or approved have been utilised in attempts to provide directed therapy, reduce adverse effects and improve drug penetration into selected infection sites, such as the central nervous system, lungs and peritoneum. The most widely investigated agent utilising a novel method of drug delivery is amphotericin B. Dose forms for this agent include topicals (aerosol, nasal spray, irrigations, pastes, absorbable sponges, impregnated bone cement and gelatin), oral dosage forms (solutions, suspensions, tablets and so on) and ophthalmic preparations (drops, ointments and injections). Amphotericin B has been administered by routes such as oral, endobronchial, intrathecal, intracisternal, intra-articular, intraperitoneal, ophthalmic and as an antibiotic 'line lock'. Nystatin has been administered as an aerosol, percutaneous paste and bladder washes. Azoles, such as miconazole, fluconazole, ketoconazole and posaconazole, have been administered by novel methods but to a lesser degree. Most of these reports involve miconazole. The dose forms and routes of administration for azoles have included irrigants (bladder, joint), ophthalmic preparations (eye drops, intraocular injections, ointments), impregnated bone cement, endobronchial and intrathecal administration. Finally, both methylene blue (bladder washes) and flucytosine (peritoneal lavage, ophthalmic eye drops) have also been employed. Adequate evaluations of both the safety and efficacy of these therapies are most often hindered by prior or concomitant antifungal therapies, comorbidities and the lack of controlled clinical trials. In addition, the availability of newer treatment options, which demonstrate significant improvement in drug distribution and treatment-related adverse effects make many such novel modes of administration less practical or necessary. In contrast, the inhalation of antifungal aerosols, such as amphotericin B, is rapidly becoming a viable prophylactic option.
Arthur, RR; Drew, RH; Perfect, JR
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