Agonist-stimulated beta-adrenergic receptor internalization requires dynamic cytoskeletal actin turnover.
Stimulation of beta-adrenergic receptors (betaARs) leads to sequential recruitment of beta-arrestin, AP-2 adaptor protein, clathrin, and dynamin to the receptor complex, resulting in endocytosis. Whether a dynamic actin cytoskeleton is required for betaAR endocytosis is not known. In this study, we have used beta(1)- and beta(2) ARs, two ubiquitously expressed members of the betaAR family, to comprehensively evaluate the requirement of the actin cytoskeleton in receptor internalization. The integrity of the actin cytoskeleton was manipulated with the agent latrunculin B (LB) and mutants of cofilin to depolymerize actin filaments. Treatment of cells with LB resulted in dose-dependent depolymerization of the cortical actin cytoskeleton that was associated with significant attenuation in internalization of beta(2)ARs, beta(1)ARs, and mutants of beta(1)ARs that internalize via either clathrin- or caveolin-dependent pathways. Importantly, LB treatment did not inhibit beta-arrestin translocation or dynamin recruitment to the agonist-stimulated receptor. To unequivocally demonstrate the requirement of the actin cytoskeleton for beta(2)AR endocytosis, we used an actin-binding protein cofilin that biochemically depolymerizes and severs actin filaments. Isoproterenol-mediated internalization of beta(2)AR was completely blocked in the presence of wild type cofilin, which could be rescued by a mutant of cofilin that mimics a constitutive phosphorylated state and leads to normal agonist-stimulated beta(2)AR endocytosis. Finally, treatment with jasplakinolide, an inhibitor of actin turnover, resulted in dose-dependent inhibition of beta(2)AR internalization, suggesting that turnover of actin filaments at the receptor complex is required for endocytosis. Taken together, these data demonstrate that intact and functional dynamic actin cytoskeleton is required for normal betaAR internalization.
Volovyk, ZM; Wolf, MJ; Prasad, SVN; Rockman, HA
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