Medical, psychological and social correlates of work disability among men with coronary artery disease.
This study identifies the medical, psychologic and social factors that independently affect employment in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). At coronary angiography, extensive clinical, psychological and social profiles were collected on 814 men younger than 60 years with documented CAD. Clinical factors studied included measures of symptom severity, prior myocardial infarction, coronary anatomy and left ventricular function. Psychosocial factors studied included the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), Zung Depression and Anxiety Scales, a type A structured interview, Jenkins Activity Survey and measures of education and social support. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to assess the relative strength of the relation between these different factors and the patients' employment status. Many single factors differed between the 204 men (25%) who were disabled and the 610 (75%) who were not. Disabled men were less educated but no different in age, marital status or number of dependents. Disabled men had lower ejection fractions and higher indexes of angina, previous myocardial infarction and coexisting vascular disease. Disabled men also were more depressed and anxious and had lower ego strength and higher hypochondriasis scores on the MMPI, but were no different in type A behavior. By multivariable analysis, the most significant (p less than 0.01) independent predictors of work disability were, in decreasing order of importance, low education level, history of myocardial infarction, high levels of depression and high levels of hypochondriasis. It is concluded that psychological and social factors are strongly related to work status in patients with CAD, and may be more important than medical factors.
Hlatky, MA; Haney, T; Barefoot, JC; Califf, RM; Mark, DB; Pryor, DB; Williams, RB
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