Cardiac resynchronization therapy: Part 2--issues during and after device implantation and unresolved questions.

Journal Article (Journal Article;Review)

Encouraged by the clinical success of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), the implantation rate has increased exponentially, although several limitations and unresolved issues of CRT have been identified. This review concerns issues that are encountered during implantation of CRT devices, including the role of electroanatomical mapping, whether CRT implantation should be accompanied by simultaneous atrioventricular nodal ablation in patients with atrial fibrillation, procedural complications, and when to consider surgical left ventricular lead positioning. Furthermore, (echocardiographic) CRT optimization and assessment of CRT benefits after implantation are highlighted. Also, controversial issues such as the potential value of CRT in patients with mild heart failure or narrow QRS complex are addressed. Finally, open questions concerning when to combine CRT with implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy and the cost-effectiveness of CRT are discussed.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Bax, JJ; Abraham, T; Barold, SS; Breithardt, OA; Fung, JWH; Garrigue, S; Gorcsan, J; Hayes, DL; Kass, DA; Knuuti, J; Leclercq, C; Linde, C; Mark, DB; Monaghan, MJ; Nihoyannopoulos, P; Schalij, MJ; Stellbrink, C; Yu, C-M

Published Date

  • December 20, 2005

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 46 / 12

Start / End Page

  • 2168 - 2182

PubMed ID

  • 16360043

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1558-3597

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1016/j.jacc.2005.09.020


  • eng

Conference Location

  • United States