The association of psychosocial factors and depression with hypertension among older adults.
OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between depression and hypertension in an elderly population and how psychosocial variables influence this relationship. METHODS: The study included 293 subjects, who met DSM-IV criteria for unipolar depression, and 151 subjects with no psychiatric disorder. All subjects were over the age of 58. Participants were administered the Duke Depression Evaluation Schedule at baseline and at yearly intervals for 3 years. RESULTS: Cross-sectional analyses of baseline data showed that hypertensive patients were more likely to be depressed and of non-white race. Bivariate analyses provided evidence that hypertension was associated with higher amounts of total stressors and lower social support. No differences in the prevalence of hypertension were found between men and women. In addition, there was no evidence of change in hypertension status over time. CONCLUSION: Patients, especially minorities, who experience depression, stress, or a lack of social support, are at an increased likelihood of having hypertension and clinicians should consider this risk when treating this population.
Bosworth, HB; Bartash, RM; Olsen, MK; Steffens, DC
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