Intracameral anesthesia: in vitro iris and corneal uptake and washout of 1% lidocaine hydrochloride.
OBJECTIVES: To characterize the uptake, washout, and metabolism of lidocaine hydrochloride in the iris/ciliary body and cornea. METHODS: Iris/ciliary body uptake of lidocaine hydrochloride was measured by incubating human and rabbit irides in radiolabeled carbon 14-1% lidocaine hydrochloride for 2 to 60 minutes. Washout was determined by incubating the iris in 14C-1% lidocaine hydrochloride for 5 minutes and transferring the iris to a series of wells. The wells contained a common intraocular irrigating solution of essential ions, glucose, and glutathione buffered with bicarbonate (an enriched balanced salt solution [BSS PLUS]), which is similar to aqueous humor. Corneal uptake was measured by exposing the endothelial surface to 14C-1% lidocaine hydrochloride for 5 or 15 minutes. Corneal washout was performed after 5-minute exposure to 14C-1% lidocaine hydrochloride using a 2-chambered diffusion apparatus. Samples of the iris, cornea, and BSS PLUS washout solution were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography and liquid scintillation spectrometry. RESULTS: In vitro iris/ciliary body uptake of 14C-1% lidocaine hydrochloride follows a logarithmic curve, with 50% to 60% of maximum lidocaine hydrochloride uptake present at 5 minutes. There was no difference in uptake between human, albino rabbit, and pigmented rabbit irides. Washout of lidocaine from the iris occurs with a halflife of 8 to 9 minutes. Corneal uptake of lidocaine was greater after incubation for 15 vs. 5 minutes. The washout of lidocaine from the cornea had a half-life of 5 minutes. Results of high-performance liquid chromatography confirmed that there were no metabolites or breakdown products in the iris, cornea, or washout solution. CONCLUSIONS: Lidocaine is taken up quickly by the iris/ ciliary body and cornea and rapidly removed from these tissues after BSS PLUS washout. Irrigation during phacoemulsification seems to limit lidocaine exposure to the ocular tissues, resulting in a short duration of anesthesia. Lidocaine is not metabolized or broken down by the iris or cornea during this short period.
Anderson, NJ; Woods, WD; Kim, T; Rudnick, DE; Edelhauser, HF
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