Magnetic resonance thermometry during hyperthermia for human high-grade sarcoma.
PURPOSE: To determine the feasibility of measuring temperature noninvasively with magnetic resonance imaging during hyperthermia treatment of human tumors. METHODS: The proton chemical shift detected using phase-difference magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to measure temperature in phantoms and human tumors during treatment with hyperthermia. Four adult patients having high-grade primary sarcoma tumors of the lower leg received 5 hyperthermia treatments in the MR scanner using an MRI-compatible radiofrequency heating applicator. Prior to each treatment, an average of 3 fiberoptic temperature probes were invasively placed into the tumor (or phantom). Hyperthermia was applied concurrent with MR thermometry. Following completion of the treatment, regions of interest (ROI) were defined on MR phase images at each temperature probe location, in bone marrow, and in gel standards placed outside the heated region. The median phase difference (compared to pretreatment baseline images) was calculated for each ROI. This phase difference was corrected for phase drift observed in standards and bone marrow. The observed phase difference, with and without corrections, was correlated with the fiberoptic temperature measurements. RESULTS: The phase difference observed with MRI was found to correlate with temperature. Phantom measurements demonstrated a linear regression coefficient of 4.70 degrees phase difference per degree Celsius, with an R2 = 0.998. After human images with artifact were excluded, the linear regression demonstrated a correlation coefficient of 5.5 degrees phase difference per degree Celsius, with an R2 = 0.84. In both phantom and human treatments, temperature measured via corrected phase difference closely tracked measurements obtained with fiberoptic probes during the hyperthermia treatments. CONCLUSIONS: Proton chemical shift imaging with current MRI and hyperthermia technology can be used to monitor and control temperature during treatment of large tumors in the distal lower extremity.
Carter, DL; MacFall, JR; Clegg, ST; Wan, X; Prescott, DM; Charles, HC; Samulski, TV
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