Uncertainty analysis of forest carbon sink forecast with varying measurement errors: A data assimilation approach
Aims: Accurate forecast of ecosystem states is critical for improving natural resource management and climate change mitigation. Assimilating observed data into models is an effective way to reduce uncertainties in ecological forecasting. However, influences of measurement errors on parameter estimation and forecasted state changes have not been carefully examined. This study analyzed the parameter identifiability of a process-based ecosystem carbon cycle model, the sensitivity of parameter estimates and model forecasts to the magnitudes of measurement errors and the information contributions of the assimilated data to model forecasts with a data assimilation approach. MethodsWe applied a Markov Chain Monte Carlo method to assimilate eight biometric data sets into the Terrestrial ECOsystem model. The data were the observations of foliage biomass, wood biomass, fine root biomass, microbial biomass, litter fall, litter, soil carbon and soil respiration, collected at the Duke Forest free-air CO2 enrichment facilities from 1996 to 2005. Three levels of measurement errors were assigned to these data sets by halving and doubling their original standard deviations. Important FindingsResults showed that only less than half of the 30 parameters could be constrained, though the observations were extensive and the model was relatively simple. Higher measurement errors led to higher uncertainties in parameters estimates and forecasted carbon (C) pool sizes. The long-term predictions of the slow turnover pools were affected less by the measurement errors than those of fast turnover pools. Assimilated data contributed less information for the pools with long residence times in long-term forecasts. These results indicate the residence times of C pools played a key role in regulating propagation of errors from measurements to model forecasts in a data assimilation system. Improving the estimation of parameters of slow turnover C pools is the key to better forecast long-term ecosystem C dynamics. © The Author 2011.
Weng, E; Luo, Y; Gao, C; Oren, R
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