Technical note: out-of-plane angular correction based on a trigonometric function for use in two-dimensional kinematic studies.

Journal Article (Journal Article)

In two-dimensional (2D) kinematic studies, limb positions in three-dimensional (3D) space observed in lateral view are projected onto a 2D film plane. Elbow and knee-joint angles that are less than 20 degrees out-of-plane of lateral-view cameras generally exhibit very little measurable difference from their 3D counterparts (Plagenhoef 1979 Environment, Behavior, and Morphology; New York: Gustav Fisher, p. 95-118). However, when limb segment angles are more than 20 degrees out-of-plane, as is often the case in locomotor studies of arboreal primates, elbow and knee angles can appear significantly more extended than they actually are. For this reason, a methodology is described that corrects 2D out-of-plane angular estimates using a series of trigonometric transformations.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Stevens, NJ; Schmitt, DO; Cole, TM; Chan, L-K

Published Date

  • March 2006

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 129 / 3

Start / End Page

  • 399 - 402

PubMed ID

  • 16323193

Pubmed Central ID

  • 16323193

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1096-8644

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 0002-9483

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1002/ajpa.20359


  • eng