Biological evaluation of ring- and side-chain-substituted m-iodobenzylguanidine analogues.
A number of ring- and side-chain-substituted m-iodobenzylguanidine analogues were evaluated for their lipophilicity, in vitro stability, uptake by SK-N-SH human neuroblastoma cells in vitro, and biodistribution in normal mice. As expected, the lipophilicity of m-iodobenzylguanidine increased when a halogen was introduced onto the ring and decreased with the addition of polar hydroxyl, amino, and nitro substitutents. Most of the derivatives showed reasonable stability up to 24 h in PBS at 37 degrees C. While N(1)-hydroxy-N(3)-3-[(131)I]iodobenzylguanidine and 3,4-dihydroxy-5-[(131)I]iodobenzylguanidine generated a more nonpolar product in addition to the free iodide, 3-[(131)I]iodo-4-nitrobenzylguanidine decomposed to a product more polar than the parent compound. The specific uptake of 4-chloro-3-[(131)I]iodobenzylguanidine, 3-[(131)I]iodo-4-nitrobenzylguanidine, and N(1)-hydroxy-N(3)-3-[(131)I]iodobenzylguanidine by SK-N-SH human neuroblastoma cells in vitro, relative to that of m-[(125)I]iodobenzylguanidine, was 117 +/- 10%, 50 +/- 4%, and 12 +/- 2%, respectively. The specific uptake of the known m-iodobenzylguanidine analogues 4-hydroxy-3-[(131)I]iodobenzylguanidine and 4-amino-3-[(131)I]iodobenzylguanidine was 80 +/- 4% and 66 +/- 4%, respectively. None of the other m-iodobenzylguanidine derivatives showed any significant specific uptake by SK-N-SH cells. Heart uptake of 4-chloro-3-[(131)I]iodobenzylguanidine in normal mice was higher than that of m-[(125)I]iodobenzylguanidine at later time points (11 +/- 1% ID/g versus 3 +/- 1% ID/g at 24 h; p < 0.05) while uptake of 3-[(131)I]iodo-4-nitrobenzylguanidine and of N(1)-hydroxy-N(3)-3-[(131)I]iodobenzylguanidine in the heart was lower than that of m-iodobenzylguanidine at all time points. In accordance with the in vitro results, none of the other novel m-iodobenzylguanidine derivatives showed any significant myocardial or adrenal uptake in vivo.
Vaidyanathan, G; Shankar, S; Affleck, DJ; Welsh, PC; Slade, SK; Zalutsky, MR
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