Evaluation of anti-podoplanin rat monoclonal antibody NZ-1 for targeting malignant gliomas.
INTRODUCTION: Podoplanin/aggrus is a mucin-like sialoglycoprotein that is highly expressed in malignant gliomas. Podoplanin has been reported to be a novel marker to enrich tumor-initiating cells, which are thought to resist conventional therapies and to be responsible for cancer relapse. The purpose of this study was to determine whether an anti-podoplanin antibody is suitable to target radionuclides to malignant gliomas. METHODS: The binding affinity of an anti-podoplanin antibody, NZ-1 (rat IgG(2a)), was determined by surface plasmon resonance and Scatchard analysis. NZ-1 was radioiodinated with (125)I using Iodogen [(125)I-NZ-1(Iodogen)] or N-succinimidyl 4-guanidinomethyl 3-[(131)I]iodobenzoate ([(131)I]SGMIB-NZ-1), and paired-label internalization assays of NZ-1 were performed. The tissue distribution of (125)I-NZ-1(Iodogen) and that of [(131)I]SGMIB-NZ-1 were then compared in athymic mice bearing glioblastoma xenografts. RESULTS: The dissociation constant (K(D)) of NZ-1 was determined to be 1.2 × 10(-10) M by surface plasmon resonance and 9.8 × 10(-10) M for D397MG glioblastoma cells by Scatchard analysis. Paired-label internalization assays in LN319 glioblastoma cells indicated that [(131)I]SGMIB-NZ-1 resulted in higher intracellular retention of radioactivity (26.3 ± 0.8% of initially bound radioactivity at 8 h) compared to that from the (125)I-NZ-1(Iodogen) (10.0 ± 0.1% of initially bound radioactivity at 8 h). Likewise, tumor uptake of [(131)I]SGMIB-NZ-1 (39.9 ± 8.8 %ID/g at 24 h) in athymic mice bearing D2159MG xenografts in vivo was significantly higher than that of (125)I-NZ-1(Iodogen) (29.7 ± 6.1 %ID/g at 24 h). CONCLUSIONS: The overall results suggest that an anti-podoplanin antibody NZ-1 warrants further evaluation for antibody-based therapy against glioblastoma.
Kato, Y; Vaidyanathan, G; Kaneko, MK; Mishima, K; Srivastava, N; Chandramohan, V; Pegram, C; Keir, ST; Kuan, C-T; Bigner, DD; Zalutsky, MR
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