Risk factors for immersion pulmonary edema: hyperoxia does not attenuate pulmonary hypertension associated with cold water-immersed prone exercise at 4.7 ATA.
Hyperoxia has been shown to attenuate the increase in pulmonary artery (PA) pressure associated with immersed exercise in thermoneutral water, which could serve as a possible preventive strategy for the development of immersion pulmonary edema (IPE). We tested the hypothesis that the same is true during exercise in cold water. Six healthy volunteers instrumented with arterial and PA catheters were studied during two 16-min exercise trials during prone immersion in cold water (19.9-20.9°C) in normoxia [0.21 atmospheres absolute (ATA)] and hyperoxia (1.75 ATA) at 4.7 ATA. Heart rate (HR), Fick cardiac output (CO), mean arterial pressure (MAP), pulmonary artery pressure (PAP), pulmonary artery wedge pressure (PAWP), central venous pressure (CVP), arterial and venous blood gases, and ventilatory parameters were measured both early (E, 5-6 min) and late (L, 15-16 min) in exercise. During exercise at an average oxygen consumption rate (Vo(2)) of 2.38 l/min, [corrected] CO, CVP, and pulmonary vascular resistance were not affected by inspired (Vo(2)) [corrected] or exercise duration. Minute ventilation (Ve), alveolar ventilation (Va), and ventilation frequency (f) were significantly lower in hyperoxia compared with normoxia (mean ± SD: Ve 58.8 ± 8.0 vs. 65.1 ± 9.2, P = 0.003; Va 40.2 ± 5.4 vs. 44.2 ± 9.0, P = 0.01; f 25.4 ± 5.4 vs. 27.2 ± 4.2, P = 0.04). Mixed venous pH was lower in hyperoxia compared with normoxia (7.17 ± 0.07 vs. 7.20 ± 0.07), and this result was significant early in exercise (P = 0.002). There was no difference in mean PAP (MPAP: 28.28 ± 8.1 and 29.09 ± 14.3 mmHg) or PAWP (18.0 ± 7.6 and 18.7 ± 8.7 mmHg) between normoxia and hyperoxia, respectively. PAWP decreased from early to late exercise in hyperoxia (P = 0.002). These results suggest that the increase in pulmonary vascular pressures associated with cold water immersion is not attenuated with hyperoxia.
Fraser, JAV; Peacher, DF; Freiberger, JJ; Natoli, MJ; Schinazi, EA; Beck, IV; Walker, JR; Doar, PO; Boso, AE; Walker, AJ; Kernagis, DN; Moon, RE
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