Impact of tricuspid valve regurgitation in patients treated with implantable left ventricular assist devices.
BACKGROUND: The progression of tricuspid valve regurgitation (TR) and the impact of preoperative TR on postoperative outcomes in patients having left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation has not been studied. METHODS: One hundred seventy-six consecutive implantable LVAD procedures were retrospectively reviewed. A total of 137 patients comprised the final study group with complete preimplant characteristics, before and after echocardiogram assessment of TR, and outcomes data. Patients were divided into two groups: insignificant TR (iTR) consisting of those with preimplant TR grades of none, trace, and mild; and significant TR (sTR) consisting of those with moderate and severe TR grades. RESULTS: Relative to patients with iTR, patients with sTR were younger (53.6±12.8 versus 58.4±10.0 years, p=0.02) and more commonly had nonischemic cardiomyopathies (69% versus 38%, p<0.001). The preimplant incidence of iTR and sTR was 51% and 49%. Immediately after the LVAD implant procedure, TR did not significantly change. At late follow-up (156±272 days), 32% had moderate or severe TR. Also, 41% of the original sTR group persisted with moderate or severe TR. Relative to patients with iTR, patients with sTR required longer postimplant intravenous inotropic support (8.5 versus 5.0 days, p=0.02), more commonly required a temporary right ventricular assist device, and had a longer postimplant length of hospital stay (27.0 versus 20.0 days, p=0.03). There was also a trend toward decreased survival for sTR versus iTR (log rank=0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Tricuspid regurgitation is not reduced immediately after LVAD implantation. Significant TR is associated with longer postimplant inotropic support and length of hospital stay.
Piacentino, V; Williams, ML; Depp, T; Garcia-Huerta, K; Blue, L; Lodge, AJ; Mackensen, GB; Swaminathan, M; Rogers, JG; Milano, CA
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