Stage-specific toxicity of cypermethrin to medaka (Oryzias latipes) eggs and embryos using a refined methodology for an in vitro fertilization bioassay.
Using original artificial fertilization methods with medaka (Oryzias latipes), the effects of exposure to cypermethrin on gametes, fertilization, and embryonic development were investigated. The relative sensitivity was studied with 96-hour duration, 24-hour renewal exposures to six nominal concentrations of cypermethrin ranging from 3.1 100.0 microg cypermethrin/L. Tests were initiated at different developmental stages: unfertilized egg (stage 0), late morula (stage 9), eminence of swim bladder (stage 29), and maximum flexion of the atrioventricular region (stage 34). Cypermethrin did not affect the fertilization process. Predominant sublethal effects in embryos included transient visceral edemas intimately associated to the gall bladder with subsequent pericardial edemas. Other sublethal effects were observed in surviving larvae and included spastic movements with or without ability to respond to stimulus (>/=6.3 microg cypermethrin/L), spinal curvatures, and delayed or absence of swim bladder inflation (>/=12.5 microg cypermethrin/L). The exposure of the gametes (stage 0) or animals during earlier embryonic development (stages 9 or 29) was not a critical window for cypermethrin exposure. Although the incidence of edemas in embryos occurred mainly during exposure of these early developmental stages, embryo and larva lethality and the incidence of transient sublethal effects in hatchlings showed that the later exposure window (stage 34) was the most sensitive. The stage 34 group involved advanced organogenetic stages in which the chorion partially degraded before hatching. Our studies reinforced the idea that a combination of morphologic and functional impairment evaluation is a more sensitive response to developmental toxicants than morphologic defects alone.
González-Doncel, M; Fernández-Torija, C; Hinton, DE; Tarazona, JV
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