Attendance at religious services, interleukin-6, and other biological parameters of immune function in older adults.
OBJECTIVE: First, to examine and explain the relationship between religious service attendance and plasma Interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels, and second, to examine the relationship between religious attendance and other immune-system regulators and inflammatory substances. METHODS: During the third in-person interview (1992) of the Establishment of Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly (EPESE) project, Duke site, 1718 subjects age sixty-five or over had blood drawn for analysis of immune regulators and inflammatory factors, including IL-6 measurements. IL-6 was examined both as a continuous variable and at a cutoff of 5 pg/ml. Information on attendance at religious services was available from the 1992 interview and two prior interviews (1986 and 1989). RESULTS: Religious attendance was inversely related to high IL-6 levels (> 5 pg/ml), but not to IL-6 measured as a continuous variable. Bivariate analyses revealed that high religious attendance in 1989 predicted a lower proportion of subjects with high IL-6 in 1992 (beta-.10, p = .01) High religious attendance in 1992 also predicted a lower proportion of subjects with high IL-6 levels in 1992 (beta-.14, p = .0005). When age, sex, race, education, chronic illnesses, and physical functioning were controlled, 1989 religious attendance weakened as a predictor of high IL-6 (beta-.07, p = .10), but 1992 religious attendance retained its effect (beta-.10, p = .02). When religious attenders were compared to non- attenders, they were only about one-half as likely to have IL-6 levels greater than 5 ng/ml (OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.40-0.84, p < .005). Religious attendance was also related to lower levels of the immune-inflammatory markers alpha-2 globulin, fibrin d-dimers, polymorphonuclear leukocytes, and lymphocytes. While controlling for covariates weakened most of these relationships, adjusting analyses for depression and negative life events had little effect. CONCLUSIONS: There is a weak relationship between religious attendance and high IL-6 levels that could not be explained by other covariates, depression, or negative life events. This finding provides some support for the hypothesis that older adults who frequently attend religious services have healthier immune systems, although mechanism of effect remains unknown.
Koenig, HG; Cohen, HJ; George, LK; Hays, JC; Larson, DB; Blazer, DG
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