Family history of psychiatric disorder and low self-confidence: predictors of depressive symptoms at 12-month follow-up.
We examined effects of two risk factors for depression, family psychiatric history and Low Self-Confidence, on (1) baseline characteristics of major depression and (2) depressive symptoms one year later. Subjects (N = 104) in the midst of a depressive episode were assigned to one of three family history subtypes identified in earlier research: Pure Depressive Disease (PDD) Depressive Spectrum Disease (DSD), Sporadic Depressive Disease (SDD). Results indicate that effects of Self-Confidence on depressive symptoms at follow-up varied by family subtype. In multivariate analyses with controls for demographic and illness characteristics, the mean follow-up depressive score was below the depressive threshold for PDD subjects and above it for SDD subjects regardless of the level of Self-Confidence. In contrast, DSD subjects with High Self-Confidence reported significantly more symptoms than those with Low Self-Confidence.
Hughes, DC; Turnbull, JE; Blazer, DG
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