Influence of actin cytoskeletal integrity on matrix metalloproteinase-2 activation in cultured human trabecular meshwork cells.
PURPOSE: The goal of this study was to investigate the possible link between actin cytoskeletal integrity and the activation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in trabecular meshwork (TM) cells. METHODS: Primary human TM (HTM) cells treated with different actin cytoskeleton-interfering agents, including cytochalasin D, latrunculin A, ethacrynic acid (ECA), a Rho kinase inhibitor (Y-27632), and H-7 (serine/threonine kinase inhibitor), were examined for changes in actin cytoskeletal organization by phalloidin staining, MMP-2 activation by gelatin zymography, expression of MT1-MMP by quantitative real-time PCR analysis, levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP-1 and TIMP-2), and activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) by immunoblotting. RESULTS: Treatment of HTM cells with cytochalasin D and latrunculin A led to significant activation of MMP-2, p38 MAPK, and ERK1/2, which appeared to correlate with changes in cell morphology and actin depolymerization. Additionally, treatment with these cytoskeleton-disrupting agents elicited increased expression of MT1-MMP in HTM cells, concomitant with a decrease in the levels of secreted TIMP-1 and TIMP-2. In contrast, treatment with ECA, Y-27632, or H-7 triggered changes in cell shape and reduced actin stress fibers in HTM cells but did not exert significant effects on MMP-2 activation or MT1-MMP expression. CONCLUSIONS: These studies indicate that cytochalasin D- and latrunculin A-induced alteration of actin cytoskeletal integrity in HTM cells is associated with MMP-2 activation, most likely through the upregulation of its activator, MT1-MMP. These data provide a mechanistic connection between actin cytoskeletal organization and MMP-2 activation in TM cells and offer new insights into extracellular matrix remodeling in the aqueous outflow pathway.
Sanka, K; Maddala, R; Epstein, DL; Rao, PV
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