Phosphorylation of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 1 (GRK1) is regulated by light but independent of phototransduction in rod photoreceptors.
Phosphorylation of rhodopsin by G protein-coupled receptor kinase 1 (GRK1, or rhodopsin kinase) is critical for the deactivation of the phototransduction cascade in vertebrate photoreceptors. Based on our previous studies in vitro, we predicted that Ser(21) in GRK1 would be phosphorylated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) in vivo. Here, we report that dark-adapted, wild-type mice demonstrate significantly elevated levels of phosphorylated GRK1 compared with light-adapted animals. Based on comparatively slow half-times for phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, phosphorylation of GRK1 by PKA is likely to be involved in light and dark adaptation. In mice missing the gene for adenylyl cyclase type 1, levels of phosphorylated GRK1 were low in retinas from both dark- and light-adapted animals. These data are consistent with reports that cAMP levels are high in the dark and low in the light and also indicate that cAMP generated by adenylyl cyclase type 1 is required for phosphorylation of GRK1 on Ser(21). Surprisingly, dephosphorylation was induced by light in mice missing the rod transducin α-subunit. This result indicates that phototransduction does not play a direct role in the light-dependent dephosphorylation of GRK1.
Osawa, S; Jo, R; Xiong, Y; Reidel, B; Tserentsoodol, N; Arshavsky, VY; Iuvone, PM; Weiss, ER
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