Intralysosomal iron induces lysosomal membrane permeabilization and cathepsin D-mediated cell death in trabecular meshwork cells exposed to oxidative stress.
PURPOSE: To investigate the role of intralysosomal redox-active iron in oxidative stress-induced damage in trabecular meshwork (TM) cells. METHODS: Chronic oxidative stress was applied using the hyperoxic model; acute oxidative stress was applied with H(2)O(2). Microarray analysis was performed using microarrays. mRNA and protein levels were quantified by real-time PCR and Western blot analysis, respectively. Redox-active iron was monitored using calcein-AM. Apoptosis was quantified using double staining. DNA damage was evaluated by single-cell gel electrophoresis assay. Lysosomal permeabilization was monitored using uptake and acridine orange relocation techniques. Intracellular ROS production was quantified using H(2)DCFDA. Cytosolic translocation of cathepsins was visualized with pepstatin-A-BODIPY-FL. Chemical inhibition of cathepsins was achieved with leupeptin and pepstatin A. Silencing of cathepsin expression was accomplished with miRNA sequences. Lysosomal iron chelation was achieved with desferrioxamine. RESULTS: Chronically stressed TM cells showed elevated levels of redox-active iron and altered expression of genes involved in intracellular iron homeostasis. Although iron increased ROS production and lipofuscin levels and sensitized TM cells to H(2)O(2), intralysosomal iron chelation completely protected the cells against H(2)O(2)-induced cell death and apoptosis. The protective effect of desferrioxamine was mediated by the prevention of lysosomal ROS generation and the rupture of lysosomal membrane, with the subsequent release of cathepsin D into the cytosol. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that the generation of intralysosomal ROS induces lysosomal membrane permeabilization and the release of cathepsin D into the cytosol, leading to TM cell death. Here, the authors propose a mechanism by which oxidative stress might contribute to the decrease in cellularity reported in the TM tissue with both aging and disease.
Lin, Y; Epstein, DL; Liton, PB
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