Accuracy of a remote eye tracker for radiologic observer studies: effects of calibration and recording environment.
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: To determine the accuracy and reproducibility of a remote eye-tracking system for studies of observer gaze while displaying volumetric chest computed tomography (CT) images. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four participants performed calibrations using three different gray-scale backgrounds (black, gray, and white). Each participant then observed a three-dimensional 10-point test pattern embedded in five Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) datasets (test backgrounds): a full 190-section chest CT scan, 190 copies of a single chest CT section, and three 190-section datasets of homogeneous intensity (black, gray, and white). RESULTS: Significant variances between participants, calibration backgrounds, and test backgrounds were observed. The least mean systematic error (deviation of recorded gaze position from target) was obtained when the calibration background and test background were black (27 pixels). Systematic error increased when displaying a test background that deviated from the calibration background intensity. Hence, the largest mean systematic error occurred when calibrating to a black background and displaying a white background (67 pixels). For complex chest CT volumes the white calibration background performed best (38 pixels). An angular analysis of the systematic error was performed and demonstrated that the systemic error primarily affects the vertical position of the estimated gaze position. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate a potential source of systematic error during gaze recording in a dynamic environment and highlight the importance of configuring the calibration procedure according to the brightness of the display. We recommend that investigators develop routines for postcalibration accuracy measurement and report the effective accuracy for the display environment in which the data are collected.
Tall, M; Choudhury, KR; Napel, S; Roos, JE; Rubin, GD
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