Using step activity monitoring to characterize ambulatory activity in community-dwelling older adults.
OBJECTIVES: To explore the potential of using step activity monitoring to detect differences in ambulatory activity associated with advancing age and declining function in community-dwelling seniors. DESIGN: Cross-sectional pilot study. SETTING: General communities of Seattle, Washington; Catonsville, Maryland; and Durham, North Carolina. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty healthy younger adults, 28 healthy older adults, and 12 older adults reporting functional limitations. MEASUREMENTS: Ambulatory activity data were collected over 6 days with the StepWatch 3. Average daily values were calculated for number of steps, number of minutes of activity, number of activity bouts, variability of minute-to-minute activity, and randomness of minute-to-minute activity fluctuations. RESULTS: Healthy older adults engaged in fewer bouts of activity (P=.03) and displayed less-variable activity (P=.02) than younger adults. Older adults reporting functional limitations not only engaged in fewer bouts of activity (P=.009) and less variable activity (P<.001) than younger adults, but also accumulated fewer total steps (P=.003) and minutes of activity (P=.008) and had less-random minute-to-minute activity fluctuations (P=.02). CONCLUSION: Step activity monitoring data were useful for detecting differences in ambulatory activity according to age and functional limitation. Monitor-based measures reflecting patterns of ambulatory activity show promise for use in studies of physical functioning.
Cavanaugh, JT; Coleman, KL; Gaines, JM; Laing, L; Morey, MC
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