Application of energy-based technologies and topical hemostatic agents in the management of surgical hemostasis.
Achieving intraoperative hemostasis is essential for excellent surgical outcomes. A variety of methods, ranging from mechanical tools and energy-based technologies to topical hemostatic agents, are available to the modern surgeon. Given that bleeding develops from different origins, from small discrete bleeding or venous oozing to arterial hemorrhage, different tools and agents have different efficacy in specific situations. In this article, we review the mechanism by which currently available hemostatic tools and agents stop bleeding and give recommendations for their use during surgery. Furthermore, the costs of the various methods are presented, allowing the provider to choose not only the most potent but also the most cost-effective treatment modality in each situation.
Sileshi, B; Achneck, H; Ma, L; Lawson, JH
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