Management of surgical hemostasis: topical agents.
Intraoperative control of bleeding during any surgical procedure is vital for achieving a positive patient outcome. Hemostasis can be achieved through practical and effective systemic or topical approaches. A variety of hemostatic methods can be employed, ranging from simple manual pressure application with one finger to electrical tissue cauterization, systemic administration of blood products, and systemic administration or topical application of procoagulation agents. The key to surgical success is critically dependent on knowledgeable use of a method appropriate for the level of bleeding experienced by the patient. Topical agents can be effective as adjuncts to aid in hemostasis when bleeding is not controllable with pressure application, vessel ligation, or electrocautery. Such adjunctive hemostatic treatments include topical gelatins, collagens, oxidized celluloses, thrombin and fibrin sealants, synthetic glues, and glutaraldehyde-based glues. As with the use of systemically delivered hemostatic agents, topical treatments also carry risks with their use, and their efficacy has not been extensively studied in large randomized, placebo-controlled prospective studies. The effective use of topical agents is highly dependent on the surgeon's experience or preference and their availability in the surgical setting. In this article, we review the currently available topical hemostatic agents, compare their efficacy, and give general recommendations for their use in the operating room.
Sileshi, B; Achneck, HE; Lawson, JH
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