Pain catastrophizing in patients with noncardiac chest pain: relationships with pain, anxiety, and disability.
OBJECTIVE:To examine the contributions of chest pain, anxiety, and pain catastrophizing to disability in 97 patients with noncardiac chest pain (NCCP) and to test whether chest pain and anxiety were related indirectly to greater disability via pain catastrophizing. METHODS:Participants completed daily diaries measuring chest pain for 7 days before completing measures of pain catastrophizing, trait anxiety, and disability. Linear path model analyses examined the contributions of chest pain, trait anxiety, and catastrophizing to physical disability, psychosocial disability, and disability in work, home, and recreational activities. RESULTS:Path models accounted for a significant amount of the variability in disability scales (R(2) = 0.35 to 0.52). Chest pain and anxiety accounted for 46% of the variance in pain catastrophizing. Both chest pain (beta = 0.18, Sobel test Z = 2.58, p < .01) and trait anxiety (beta = 0.14, Sobel test Z = 2.11, p < .05) demonstrated significant indirect relationships with physical disability via pain catastrophizing. Chest pain demonstrated a significant indirect relationship with psychosocial disability via pain catastrophizing (beta = 0.12, Sobel test Z = 1.96, p = .05). After controlling for the effects of chest pain and anxiety, pain catastrophizing was no longer related to disability in work, home, and recreational activities. CONCLUSIONS:Chest pain and anxiety were directly related to greater disability and indirectly related to physical and psychosocial disability via pain catastrophizing. Efforts to improve functioning in patients with NCCP should consider addressing pain catastrophizing.
Shelby, RA; Somers, TJ; Keefe, FJ; Silva, SG; McKee, DC; She, L; Waters, SJ; Varia, I; Riordan, YB; Knowles, VM; Blazing, M; Blumenthal, JA; Johnson, P
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