Combined antegrade and retrograde endoscopic approach for the management of urinary diversion-associated pathology.
BACKGROUND: Endourologic management of stones and strictures in patients with a urinary diversion is often cumbersome because of the absence of standard anatomic landmarks. We report on our technique of minimally invasive management of urinary diversion-associated pathology by means of a combined antegrade and retrograde approach. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Five patients with urinary diversion-associated pathology were treated at our institution between May 1997 and October 1998. Their problems were: an obstructing ureteral stone in a man with ureterosigmoidostomy performed for bladder extrophy; two men with a valve stricture in their hemiKock urinary diversions; an anastomotic stricture in a man with an ileal loop diversion; and a long left ureteroenteric stricture in a man with a right colon pouch diversion. After percutaneous placement of an guidewire across the area of interest, the targeted pathology was accessed via a retrograde approach using standard semirigid or flexible fiberoptic endoscopes. Postoperative follow-up with intravenous urography, differential renal scan, or both was performed at 3 to 24 months (mean 12 months). RESULTS: The combined antegrade and retrograde approach allowed successful access to pathologic areas in all patients. Holmium laser/Acucise incision of stenotic segments or ballistic fragmentation of stones was achieved in all cases without perioperative complications. None of the strictures with an initially successful outcome has recurred; however, in one patient, the procedure failed as soon as the internal stent was removed. The patient with the ureteral calculus remains stone free, and his ureterosigmoidostomy is patent without evidence of obstruction on his last imaging study, 24 months postoperatively. CONCLUSIONS: Combined antegrade and retrograde endoscopic access to the area of interest is our preferred method of approaching pathologic problems in patients with a urinary diversion. An antegrade nephrostogram provides better delineation of anatomy, while through-and-through access enables rapid and easier identification of stenotic segments that may be hidden by mucosal folds. Furthermore, this approach allows the use of larger semirigid or flexible endoscopes in conjunction with more efficient fragmentation devices, resulting in enhanced vision from better irrigation. Finally, an initial endoscopic approach may be preferred because its failure does not compromise the success of future open surgery.
Delvecchio, FC; Kuo, RL; Iselin, CE; Webster, GD; Preminger, GM
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