Acoustic and mechanical properties of renal calculi: implications in shock wave lithotripsy.
The acoustic and mechanical properties of renal calculi dictate how a stone interacts with the mechanical forces produced by shock wave lithotripsy; thus, these properties are directly related to the success of the treatment. Using an ultrasound pulse transmission technique, we measured both longitudinal and transverse (or shear) wave propagation speeds in nine groups of renal calculi with different chemical compositions. We also measured stone density using a pycnometer based on Archimedes' principle. From these measurements, we calculated wave impedance and dynamic mechanical properties of the renal stones. Calcium oxalate monohydrate and cystine stones had higher longitudinal and transverse wave speeds, wave impedances, and dynamic moduli (bulk modulus, Young's modulus, and shear modulus), suggesting that these stones are more difficult to fragment. Phosphate stones (carbonate apatite and magnesium ammonium phosphate hydrogen) were found to have lower values of these properties, suggesting they are more amenable to shock wave fragmentation. These data provide a physical explanation for the significant differences in stone fragility observed clinically.
Chuong, CJ; Zhong, P; Preminger, GM
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