In vivo assessment of free radical activity during shock wave lithotripsy using a microdialysis system: the renoprotective action of allopurinol.
PURPOSE: Shock wave lithotripsy is believed to cause renal damage directly through cellular injury from high energy shock waves and indirectly through vascular injury and resultant ischemia, which gives rise to oxygen free radical compounds. The transient and volatile nature of free radicals and derived products makes their detection difficult. Moreover, certain medications may provide a protective effect against shock wave lithotripsy induced renal parenchymal injury. We introduced an innovative microdialysis system for in vivo sampling of interstitial fluids that can be analyzed for free radical mediated lipid peroxidation products after shock wave lithotripsy treatment in the swine model. In addition, this system was used to test the antioxidant or renoprotective action of allopurinol. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten juvenile swine were assigned to a nonmedicated control group that underwent shock wave lithotripsy or to a group that was premedicated with allopurinol before shock wave lithotripsy. Each group of animals underwent shock wave lithotripsy to the lower pole of the right kidney and received a total of 10,000 shock waves. Dialysate fluid was collected at 1,000-shock wave increments via probes surgically implanted into the lower pole of the right and left kidneys before lithotripsy. Samples were immediately preserved in liquid nitrogen and subsequently analyzed for the presence and concentration of conjugated diene levels, a measure of lipid peroxidation. Five additional juvenile swine were assigned to a sham treated group that did not undergo shock wave lithotripsy. Dialysate fluid was collected from the lower pole of the right and left kidneys to establish baseline or pre-lithotripsy levels of conjugated dienes. RESULTS: After shock wave lithotripsy conjugated diene levels increased almost 100-fold over that in the right kidneys of the nonmedicated control group. The difference was statistically significant compared to levels in the contralateral untreated kidneys (p <0.01). Right kidneys in the group premedicated with allopurinol did not demonstrate an increase in conjugated diene levels during shock wave lithotripsy. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study confirm shock wave lithotripsy induced free radical activity as well the antioxidant and protective nature of allopurinol. The newly described microdialysis system enables real-time sampling of interstitial fluids during shock wave lithotripsy. It represents a unique method for assessing free radical formation and evaluating the protective effects of additional antioxidant medications.
Munver, R; Delvecchio, FC; Kuo, RL; Brown, SA; Zhong, P; Preminger, GM
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