Management of calyceal calculi.
Management of calyceal calculi has changed dramatically during the past 20 years. Minimally invasive techniques virtually have replaced open surgical stone removal. Even large and complex calyceal calculi may be treated effectively with these minimally invasive techniques. Although open surgical stone removal is performed infrequently, a clear understanding of the subtle renal anatomy aids the urologist in more effectively treating patients with calyceal calculi and in limiting surgical complications.
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