Complications and postoperative events after cryosurgery for prostate cancer.
OBJECTIVES: There has been a call in the urological literature for standardized reporting of complications. To use strict criteria aiming to report our complications and other postoperative events in a cohort of men undergoing third-generation prostate cryosurgery. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Demographic, clinical and pathological data were collected on men undergoing primary cryosurgery from 2002-2010, excluding those who had received neoadjuvant or adjuvant radiotherapy. Complications and events were broadly defined as any deviation from the expected postoperative course and any subjective complaint expressed during a follow-up visit. Descriptive statistics were generated and compared between groups using chi-squared and rank sum tests as appropriate. Logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the potential predictors of any complication or event. RESULTS: In total, 106 consecutive patients were identified. There were no intra-operative complications or instances of equipment failure. We observed 42 early complications, with 48 delayed and 10 late postoperative events. A total of five (4.7%) patients had persistent urge and/or stress incontinence. Thirty-one patients had International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and bother index scores available before and after surgery; median scores decreased from 7 and 2 to 6 and 1, for IPSS and bother index, respectively. Twenty-four patients had Sexual Health Inventory for Men scores available before surgery and at 2-year follow-up; median scores decreased from 11 to 2. On multivariate analysis, there were no significant associations. CONCLUSIONS: Modern cryosurgery is safe, and most of the complications and postoperative events are transient. Erectile function, however, has marked deterioration. We were unable to identify significant risk factors for complications or postoperative events.
Caso, JR; Tsivian, M; Mouraviev, V; Kimura, M; Polascik, TJ
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