Vascular access infections in patients undergoing dialysis with special emphasis on the role and treatment of Staphylococcus aureus.
Access-related infections are the most important causes of the loss of vascular access for dialysis. These infections also may lead to devastating consequences, including sepsis with multiorgan failure; endocarditis; or metastatic infections such as vertebral osteomyelitis, epidural abscess, or endophthalmitis. A small percentage of these complications are fatal; overall, dialysis-related bloodstream infections are the second leading cause of death in patients undergoing hemodialysis, accounting for up to 10% of all deaths, and approximately three-fourths of all deaths caused by infection in patients undergoing dialysis. Moreover, vascular placement and complications account for approximately one fourth of all admissions and hospital days among patients on dialysis.
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